|Adolf Hitler personally declines the appeals for clemency of 17 members of the Berlin Red Orchestra on July 21, 1943. Even the Reich Military Court recommends that he pardon 22-year-old ceramics artisan Cato Bontjes van Beek and 19-year-old student Liane Berkowitz, who has given birth to a daughter while in custody. Hitler expressly refuses this and has his decision countersigned by the Chief of Armed Forces High Command, Wilhelm Keitel. Liane Berkowitz and Cato Bontjes van Beek are murdered together with 17 other men and women on August 5, 1943. Liane Berkowitz’s daughter Irene dies in October 1943.